Hormones can be absorbed orally (from the gut mucosa), from skin (patches) and/or from vaginal mucosa (like a vaginal cream, tablet or suppository).
Once the hormone is absorbed into the blood, it goes to all over the body through blood circulation. The breast, ovarian and uterine tissues are rich in estrogen receptors. The increased hormones can cause cancers in these three tissues.
After menopause, the reproductive activity of a woman stops. As a result, the reproductive hormones reduce. This occurs naturally and is safe.
However, to boost the reproductive hormones artificially to its original level when you are not reproductively active, it is unnatural. This is not safe.
With increased hormones, the retired old and previously dormant reproductive tissue cells in the breast, ovaries, and uterine become active again. These old cells split to reproduce more cells. Some of these old cells may make a mistake during cell-splitting because they are "old" cells. This mistake is called cell mutation. Some mutations may cause the cells to become cancer cells.
Estrogen promotes old reproductive cells to cause cancer is a well-established fact. It has been documented by tens of thousands of scientific research articles. But drug companies do not want you to know that because if you are aware of that, you would not buy their drugs.
If you are interested in learning more about the risk of estrogen in causing breast cancer, you can go to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
In the search bar, type "estrogen cancer risk." Hit the return key and you will see there are 20,657 related scientific papers. Among them, 15,334 papers are about breast cancer.
The number of scientific papers on estrogen causing cancers increases daily. Here is a blog article to summarize all the newly published scientific evidence:
The take home message is that estrogen supplement (including bioidentical hormones) can cause breast, ovarian and uterine cancers. If you do not wish to get these cancers, you should seek a safer alternative.
Is there a safe and better alternative to estrogen? The answer is "Yes!" NeuEve is safer and better.